The humanitarian trend of protracted refugee situations and urban displacement are driving de-facto integration of urban refugees in host countries. Facilitating this process through local programmes and policies is an important long-term solution for urban refugees that can no longer be ignored. Tools to measure refugee integration are required to conduct research and to guide programmes and policy. This study describes the development and validation of a 25-item Refugee Integration Scale (RIS) using standard scale development methodology among Somali and Banyamulenge refugees in Nairobi, Kenya. We report mixed-methodology methods to strengthen the scale’s validity and reliability. These include a literature review and a qualitative focus group component among refugees in Nairobi to establish a theoretical construct for urban refugee integration. The scale was then piloted and refined through a quasi-randomized survey of 331 refugees in Nairobi. Reliability was established as Cronbach’s alpha 0.861 indicating high internal consistency. The RIS is a continuing step towards better understanding and measuring urban refugee integration, and will help to guide policies and programmes for this vulnerable population.
The International Refugee Rights Initiative (IRRI) is responding to the call for information about humanitarian responses to forced displacement in Central and East Africa. IRRI’s submission begins with a critique of two key failed policy responses to refugees in the region. First, the emphasis on encampment of refugees, especially in protracted situations of displacement; and second, the emphasis on repatriation as the favoured (and often only) durable solution. We believe that systemic implementation of UNHCR’s Alternatives to Camps policy would help resolve the deficiencies in both these approaches.2 We then specifically address the question of whether or not conditions for voluntary return for Somali refugees in Kenya are being met; and whether or not there are adequate arrangements for the closure of Dadaab camp. It concludes with some general statements.
Around 5,000 Eritreans leave their country every month. This working paper sets out to better understand whether, by providing alternative options, it is possible for policy-makers to prevent or reduce irregular migration from countries- and regions-of-origin.
Large amounts of data on forced displacement are collected and disseminated each year and used to inform policy and programming by humanitarian and development actors. However, not all of these data are credible or complete, and there are significant gaps in the data required for longer-term development planning. This paper reviews the various sources of data on forced displacement and assesses how these can be improved to enable more effective analysis and assistance by development actors. At an aggregate level, the headline figure of 65 million forcibly displaced persons is an estimate, and the data on internally displaced persons are the least robust.
This report provides an original analysis of the economic and social impact of refugees in Kenya’s Kakuma refugee camp on their Turkana hosts. The methodology authors have developed enables stakeholders to run policy scenarios in a rigorous manner, ranging from encampment to decampment (i.e. camp closure) scenarios, and the potential to apply this methodology in other refugee situations around the world is particularly advantageous.
This report from IRC presents an analysis of the challenges that displaced populations face in accessing services and achieving self-reliance in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, a developing and fast-growing city. The findings and recommendations, intended primarily for humanitarian actors, are derived from qualitative research conducted in Dar es Salaam between March and October 2016. This research draws upon the perspectives and experiences of urban displaced, Tanzanians, local and national government, and organisations directly involved with urban refugee programming in the city.
IRC conducted a systematic review to research the current state of knowledge regarding the drivers of violence, the contributing factors of violence or rights violations, and programming to address violence among displaced and host populations in crisis and post-crisis urban areas. Urban displaced are exposed to drivers of violence unique to urban areas as well as others shared across a variety of humanitarian settings, including refugee camps. Economic strain, the inability to meet basic food and shelter needs, lack of legal protections, and broad discrimination against refugees and IDP populations by host communities are all examples of challenges specific to displaced populations in urban areas that contribute to the violence they experience.
This report from CWS draws on interviews and household surveys with urban returnees in Côte d'Ivoire and Rwanda, with the goal of identifying links between urbanization and return dynamics in town and small city contexts. The data collected indicates that urbanization is occurring from the point of flight into country of asylum and secondary displacement in exile, through to returns to country of origin and post-return internal migration. Given this reality, it is increasingly necessary for voluntary repatriation policy and operations to reflect dynamics in urban and non-camp settings.
Launched with the support from the African Union and the Norwegian Refugee Council, the report focusing on Africa, expands on data and analysis available on Internal Displacement including new figures from the first half of 2016.