Aspirations Survey Phase II

Building on the results and analysis of the first annual aspirations survey conducted from June to September 2019 as well as the World Bank’s micro-data analysis and the baseline results of the Danwadaag’s Local (re)integration assessment (LoRA), ReDSS is commissioning the second phase of the aspirations survey to compare data and analysis to the baseline, better understand the context changes and challenges influencing displaced persons’ decisions to either stay in current location or to move elsewhere; so as to inform better durable solutions programing and targeting in Somalia. 

The analysis will compare different groups of IDPs: those living in and out of settlements, displaced by conflict and climate, in male and female-headed HHs, recently displaced and in protracted displacement, displaced once and multiple times as well as host and non-host communities in urban areas. The objective of this second phase is to get a more comprehensive picture of displacement-related issues and dynamics to inform area-based durable solutions programming, complementing existing data and analyses. Click here to download a more detailed ToR.

Aspirations survey: Listening to displacement-affected communities over time – Baidoa, Dollow, Kismayo & Mogadishu 2019

The aspiration survey seeks to examine the multiple dimensions of vulnerabilities and sense of belonging among IDPs in four major Somali cities, through disaggregated data comparing with host communities and focusing on access to jobs, safety, social cohesion, housing and forced eviction. The analysis compares different groups of IDPs (those living in and out of settlements, displaced by conflict and climate-related reasons, in male and female-headed households, recently displaced and in protracted displacement, displaced once and multiple times), as well as host and non-host communities in urban areas. This information provides a more comprehensive picture of displacement-related impacts and dynamics with the aim to better inform area-based durable solutions programing.  The objectives are to better understand:

  • The aspirations, intentions, and push and pull factors of displacement-affected communities
  • Underlying issues that influence processes of displacement, return, and (re)integration
  • Factors that shape the decisions of people to move and the impact on the wider community

Methodology: It applies a mixed methodology consisting of structured quantitative household interviews and semi structured focus group discussions (FGDs) in each of the target locations. The target sample size for the household level interviews in each location is 500 households, with a total of 2,010 households (658 host community and 1,352 displaced households) surveyed between June and September 2019. All households participated in an in depth quantitative phone interview to create a baseline household survey. In total, 60 FGDs were conducted with participants from both host community and displaced households. Survey group leaders (selected from groups of ten households) also provided key informant interviews (KIIs) on a monthly basis during data collection. The qualitative information from the FGD and KIIs were used to inform the analysis of the household survey findings. The survey will be undertaken on an annual basis for the next 3 years to listen to displacement affected communities overtime to have better data to inform better targeting and programming.

2019/ 2020 report: This is the 1st report of an annual series. The report presents a comparative analysis of data collected from the first baseline of the ReDSS annual aspirations survey conducted in Somalia from June to December 2019 in four locations: Baidoa, Dollow, Kismayo and Mogadishu. It was commissioned by the Regional Durable Solutions Secretariat (ReDSS), in partnership with the Danwadaag Solutions Programme, Durable Solutions Programme (DSP) and RE-INTEG consortia partners. It was conducted by IMPACT Initiatives.  Click here for the full report and executive summary, here for the summary PWP and below to access the specific thematic summary extracts:

ReDSS and the research team would especially like to thank representatives of the Somali government at federal level – in particular the colleagues at the Directorate of National Statistics within Ministry of Planning, Investment and Economic Development (MoPIED) – and member states level, the members of the Technical Advisory Committee – UN Resident Coordinator Office (UNRCO), Somalia Camp Coordination and Camp Management (CCCM) Cluster, International Organization for Migration (IOM), Danish Refugee Council (DRC), Building Resilient Communities in Somalia (BRCiS), Samuel Hall, Africa’s Voices Foundation (AVF), Monitoring and Evaluation for the Somalia Humanitarian, Health and Resilience Programmes of DFID (MESH), World Bank, Gargaar Relief and Development Organization (GREDO). Most importantly, ReDSS would also like to thank the internally displaced persons, returnees and host community members in Baidoa, Dollow, Kismayo and Mogadishu, who provided information and shared their experiences. The report was edited by Kate McGuinness and the financial support provided from DFID, Danida and the EU.

Understanding Housing, Land and Property in Somalia

Issues related to housing, land and property more commonly referred to as ‘HLP’ arise in most crises, in conflict, as well as natural disasters. This is especially the case when a crisis is accompanied by significant displacement or when it occurs in a context with long-standing HLP grievances or challenges. Displacement in Somalia for example, is primarily an urban challenge, with the majority of the 2.6 million internally displaced persons living in informal settlements in urban and peri-urban areas. With resources overstretched, Somalia’s cities struggle to cope with the demands of their fast-growing populations and the added arrivals of people fleeing crises in rural areas. Finding affordable housing solutions in emergencies and protracted displacement situations is therefore extremely complex.

With this in mind, this tutorial specifically focuses on:

  • the basic concepts related to HLP rights
  • the relevance of HLP in relation to durable solutions
  • and practical actions aimed at informing HLP interventions in Somalia.

Click here for the 7-min whiteboard animation, self quiz and useful resources. 

Multi-stakeholder approach to urban displacement in Somalia- FMR issue on Cities and towns

Cities and towns are on the front line of receiving and welcoming people who have been displaced. In the 20 articles on Cities and towns in this issue of FMR, policymakers, practitioners, researchers, representatives of cities and international city-focused alliances, and displaced people themselves debate the challenges facing both the urban authorities and their partners, and those who have sought refuge.

A number of authors explore new ways of working in urban settings – including area-based approaches, multi-stakeholder partnerships, and city-to-city collaboration – while others offer insights and inspiration from local responses and the perspectives of displaced and host communities. Other authors examine how camp management practices can be applied in urban settings, how resilience can be bolstered by improved communication and information sharing, and how municipal capacity and community dialogue can be strengthened to improve protection in high-risk neighbourhoods. The issue also draws out practical lessons for promoting inclusive climate action, negotiating contested authority, and encouraging urban planning that takes account of both displaced and host community needs.

Click here for our full article on a multi-stakeholder approach to urban displacement in Somalia and here for the full FMR issue on Cities and towns

ReDSS Adaptive management and value for money approaches

Adaptive management involves testing, monitoring, getting feedback, and crucially, making adaptations and course corrections, as necessary.  Effective adaptive management requires a programme to be able to learn, reflect, decide, and then act. ReDSS work is based on an approach that takes the complexity of durable solutions processes as its  starting point. This means that the ReDSS adaptive management approach begins from a position of uncertainty about which outputs are the right ones for getting to outcome-level change, which requires an iterative process of testing and learning. Throughout the year, ReDSS supported its partners consistently to adapt their programme activities based on emerging evidence and analysis. Click below for:

Also click here for a working paper that outlines a set of tools and approaches used in supporting adaptive management; and here for  more resources from the Global Learning for Adaptive Management initiative (GLAM).

Access to shelter and services for low-income groups: lessons from Hawassa, Mogadishu and Nairobi on the politics of informal settlements and shelter access

This report provides a synthesis of key findings and lessons from a three-city study on access to shelter and basic services for low-income groups in East Africa (Nairobi, Kenya; Mogadishu, Somalia; and Hawassa, Ethiopia). Guided by political economy analysis, this paper sets out some key lessons for agencies operating in cities, highlighting why and how city dwellers make certain shelter choices, and
provides suggestions on how to respond.

  • Informal institutions and actors are key to shaping how and whether people access shelter:  The complex nature of informality may serve both to enable as well as to limit choices and opportunities for low-income groups. The huge demand for shelter and the inability of the national or local state to meet these demands have driven the growth of informal settlements and generated entire industries that both maintain and exploit vulnerable populations.
  • The ‘urban poor’ are not homogenous — risks and barriers vary between individuals and households: Low-income groups in general face the greatest challenges in accessing decent housing, but groups including women, people living with disabilities and in some cases young men experience more acute challenges and additional barriers to accessing shelter on the basis of their identity.
  • Other forms of identity are important — particularly ethnicity and migration status: In Mogadishu, an intricate hierarchy of clans strongly influences the spatial distribution of population, security of tenure, urban development and evictions. Hawassa has experienced insecurity relating to disputes over land ownership and ethnic tensions. Nairobi has a long history of politicised land deals and irregular land allocations, which have often been driven by Kenya’s ethnic politics.
  • Housing options for low-income groups are underexplored and better rental regulation is needed:  Rental housing is under explored as the most appropriate option for low-income groups, and a lack of regulation contributes to poor-quality housing and exploitation of tenants. The high cost of land and property creates informal rental markets. The relative absence of regulation and protection mechanisms for renters has fostered severe tenure insecurity and exploitation in the rest of the market, especially among poorer socioeconomic groups.
  • Poorly handled evictions can cause long-term vulnerability and undermine trust in government: Evictions are a common feature of all three cities in the study. Forced evictions are exacerbating the vulnerabilities of affected households, usually entailing costs for households, including the loss of livelihoods and social networks.
  • ‘Affordable’ housing is often inaccessible — new options for affordable finance are needed: Housing classed as ‘affordable’ is often beyond the means of the majority of city dwellers – a reevaluation of ‘affordable housing’ is needed alongside new approaches to affordable finance for housing and land. The ability of the lowest-income groups to access formal housing was extremely limited across all three cases. Previous attempts at affordable housing have been captured by the middle classes. Across all three cities, mortgage finance for low- and middle-income groups is highly constrained.
  • Empowered and organised civil society working with city governments can improve low-income housing at scale: With support, local actors can respond to their particular needs and priorities. Government funding to support community-directed upgrading or household and community plot purchase and house development can widen the scope of what low-income households and communities are able to achieve.
  • National political settlements frame city decision making, but other local and regional factors – and competing interests — must also be understood: The ‘visions’ held by national-level politicians have a significant impact on urban policy and programmes. Subsequent changes in urban infrastructure, services and form will intersect with city level politics, and may have an impact on local stability and security.

Click here for full paper.

Lessons learned from the EU REINTEG Durable solutions consortia (2017-2020)

In recent years, momentum at the political and policy levels on durable solutions has been matched by an expansion of the range and scale of durable solutions programming in Somalia. The European Union-funded RE-INTEG Programme (RE-INTEG) is a multi-year programme focused on the sustainable (re)integration of IDPs and returnees in Somalia. RE-INTEG was followed by two further durable solutions-focused programmes: the Danwadaag Solutions Consortium and the Durable Solutions Programme, funded by DfID and Danida respectively, and implemented by many of the agencies engaged in RE-INTEG.

The objective of this report is to document learning and promising practices from the EU RE-INTEG NGO-led programmes.  Its scope is limited to the programmes implemented by the Jubaland Solutions Consortium (JSC), Enhancing Integration of Displacement Affected Communities in Somalia (EIDACS), and Somaliland Durable Solutions Consortium (SDSC) consortia. The learning documented in this report focuses on the following 4 areas:

  • Programme strategy and approach, including the use of the IASC indicators
  • Programme consortium governance structures and coordination within/between consortia
  • Engagement with critical durable solutions stakeholders, particularly government representatives and displacement-affected communities (DACs)
  • Learning and programme adaptation.

Click here for the report and below for 3 case studies focusing on:

ReDSS 2019 Solutions analyses update case study extracts

In order to help you navigate the dense full Solutions analysis report that was published earlier this year, we have divided into 5 parts structured around case studies on the following durable solutions programming principles:

Adoption of durable solutions programming principles by the Federal Government of Somalia

These principles were first formulated in 2016/2017 by ReDSS and its partners. They were revised jointly with NGOs and UN agencies in 2018, coordinated by ReDSS and the Somalia UN Resident Coordinator Office with the objective to harmonize them. They draw on the partner experiences and learning in implementing durable solutions projects. Over time, these principles have proven to be a good tool for increased coherence in the design of projects and programmes. The principles have been endorsed and adopted by the Federal Government of Somalia. Click here for the programming principles.

Annual aspirations analyses to inform DS programming & policies in Baidoa, Kismayo, Mogadishu, Dollow

The Regional Durable Solutions Secretariat (ReDSS) has commissioned Impact Initiative to develop and pilot a people-centered survey methodology to understand intentions and aspirations vis-à-vis durable solutions, as well as inter-community dynamics and relations, in displacement-affected communities. This will be used annually as a longitudinal survey in Baidoa, Kismayo, Dollow and Mogadishu. Survey data will help to inform the design and adaptation of solutions-oriented policies and programming.

The objectives of the aspirations survey are to better understand:

  • the aspirations, intentions and push and pull factors of displacement affected communities
  • the underlying issues that influence processes of displacement, return and (re)integration
  • the factors that shape people’s decisions to move and the impact on the wider communities

Based on the survey findings, workshops will be conducted bringing policy makers and practitioners together to inform collective analysis/ common understanding of the different factors that shape displacement, return and (re)integration in Somalia to adapt and improve durable solutions programing:

  • What are profiles, aspirations, intentions and push and pull factors of host, returnees and IDP populations?
  • What are the underlying issues that influence processes of displacement, return and (re)integration?
  • What factors shape people’s decisions concerning displacement, return and (re)integration in these 4 locations?
  • What is the impact of displacement, return and (re)integration on the wider community?
  • Priorities and recommendations would also be used to inform and contribute to National Development Plan, draft National Policy on Internal Displacement, local development and urbanization/space planning documents and other appropriate policies.

The information coming from the survey will be reviewed together with stakeholders to inform a common understanding and develop joint analysis and recommendations to adapt programs. The aspirations survey is not intended to monitor the 28 IASC/ReDSS solutions framework indicators. This is done through the solutions analysis using secondary data available. The survey will not be able to inform IDP figures in the locations as only selected displacement affected communities will be part of the exercise.

Click here for the one pager, click here a comparative analysis and summary presentations of the findings from Kismayo, Baidoa and Mogadishu.